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propositio 41

Pars 4, prop 41
Latin | Appuhn - fr | Stern - de | Peri - it | Suchtelen - nl | Peña - es | Pautrat - fr | Misrahi - fr     infra (5)  |  haut ^

Pleasure in itself is not bad but good: contrariwise, pain in itself is bad.

Laetitia directe mala non est sed bona; tristitia autem contra directe est mala.

Laetitia directe mala non est sed bona; tristitia autem contra directe est mala.

La Joie n'est jamais mauvaise directement mais bonne ; la Tristesse, au contraire, est directement mauvaise. (Appuhn - fr)

Lust ist an und für sich nicht schlecht, sondern gut; Unlust hingegen ist an und für sich schlecht. (Stern - de)

Direttamente, ossia per sé e nei suoi esiti, la Letizia non è cattiva, ma buona; la Tristezza invece, al contrario, è direttamente cattiva. (Peri - it)

Blijheid op zichzelf is niet slecht, doch goed; Droefheid daarentegen is reeds op zichzelf slecht. (Suchtelen - nl)

La alegría, nunca es directamente mala, sino buena; en cambio, la tristeza es directamente mala. (Peña - es)

La Joie, directement, n'est pas mauvaise, mais bonne, et la Tristesse est, au contraire, directement mauvaise. (Pautrat - fr)

La Joie n’est pas directement mauvaise mais bonne, la Tristesse au contraire est directement mauvaise. (Misrahi - fr)

demonstratio par 3, prop 11  |  3, prop 11, sc   |  4, prop 38

Latin | Appuhn - fr | Stern - de | Peri - it | Suchtelen - nl | Peña - es | Misrahi - fr

4, prop 41, demo  - Pleasure (III. xi. and note) is emotion, whereby the body's power of activity, is increased or helped; pain is emotion, whereby the body's power of activity is diminished or checked; therefore (IV. xxxviii.) pleasure in itself is good, &c. Q.E.D.

4, prop 41, demo  - Laetitia (per propositionem 11 partis III cum ejusdem scholio) est affectus quo corporis agendi potentia augetur vel juvatur; tristitia autem contra est affectus quo corporis agendi potentia minuitur vel coercetur adeoque (per propositionem 38 hujus) laetitia directe bona est etc. Q.E.D.

4, prop 41, demo  - La Joie (Prop. 11, p. III, avec son Scolie) est une affection par où la puissance d'agir du Corps est accrue ou secondée ; la Tristesse, au contraire, une affection par où la puissance d'agir du Corps est diminuée ou réduite ; et, par suite (Prop. 38), la Joie est bonne directement, etc. C.Q.F.D. (Appuhn - fr)

4, prop 41, demo  - Lust ist (nach Lehrsatz 11, Teil 3, mit seiner Anmerkung) ein Affekt, durch welchen das Tätigkeitsvermögen des Körpers vermehrt oder gefördert wird. Unlust hingegen ist ein Affekt, durch welchen das Tätigkeitsvermögen des Körpers vermindert oder gehemmt wird. Daher ist (nach Lehrsatz 38 dieses Teils) Lust an und für sich gut usw. -W.z.b.w. (Stern - de)

4, prop 41, demo  - La Letizia è il sentimento fondamentale (v. la Prop. 11 della P. III e il suo Chiarim.) dal quale la potenza d'agire del Corpo è accresciuta o assecondata; la Tristezza invece è, al contrario, il sentimento dal quale la potenza d'agire del Corpo è ridotta o coartata: e perciò (v. la Prop. 38 qui sopra) la Letizia è direttamente buona, la Tristezza è direttamente cattiva. (Peri - it)

4, prop 41, demo  - Blijheid is (vlg. St. XI en Opmerking D. III) een aandoening, door welke het vermogen tot handelen van het Lichaam wordt vermeerderd of bevorderd; Droefheid daarentegen is een aandoening, door welke het vermogen tot handelen van het Lichaam wordt verminderd of belemmerd. Derhalve is (vlg. St. XXXVIII v.d. D.) Blijheid reeds op zichzelf goed enz. H.t.b.w. (Suchtelen - nl)

4, prop 41, demo  - La alegría (por la Proposición 11 de la Parte III, con su Escolio) es un afecto que aumenta o favorece la potencia de obrar del cuerpo; la tristeza, en cambio, es un afecto que disminuye o reprime la potencia de obrar del cuerpo, y así (por la Proposición 38 de esta Parte) la alegría es directamente buena, etc. Q.E.D. (Peña - es)

4, prop 41, demo  - La Joie (par la Proposition 11, Partie III avec son Scolie) est un affect par lequel la puissance d’agir du Corps est accrue ou secondée, la Tristesse au contraire est un affect par lequel la puissance d’agir du Corps est réduite ou réprimée ; c’est pourquoi (par la Proposition 38) la Joie est directement bonne, etc. C.Q.F.D. (Misrahi - fr)

3, prop 11 - Whatsoever increases or diminishes, helps or hinders the power of activity in our body, the idea thereof increases or diminishes, helps or hinders the power of thought in our mind.

3, prop 11, sc  - Thus we see, that the mind can undergo many changes, and can pass sometimes to a state of greater perfection, sometimes to a state of lesser perfection. These passive states of transition explain to us the emotions of pleasure and pain. By pleasure therefore in the following propositions I shall signify a passive state wherein the mind passes to a greater perfection. By pain I shall signify a passive state wherein the mind passes to a lesser perfection. Further, the emotion of pleasure in reference to the body and mind together I shall call stimulation (titillatio) or merriment (hilaritas), the emotion of pain in the same relation I shall call suffering or melancholy. But we must bear in mind, that stimulation and suffering are attributed to man, when one part of his nature is more affected than the rest, merriment and melancholy, when all parts are alike affected. What I mean by desire I have explained in the note to Prop. ix. of this part; beyond these three I recognize no other primary emotion; I will show as I proceed, that all other emotions arise from these three. But, before I go further, I should like here to explain at greater length Prop. x. of this part, in order that we may clearly, understand how one idea is contrary to another. In the note to II. xvii. we showed that the idea, which constitutes the essence of mind, involves the existence of body, so long as the body itself exists. Again, it follows from what we pointed out in the Coroll. to II. viii., that the present existence of our mind depends solely on the fact, that the mind involves the actual existence of the body. Lastly, we showed (II. xvii. xviii. and note) that the power of the mind, whereby it imagines and remembers things, also depends on the fact, that it involves the actual existence of the body. Whence it follows, that the present existence of the mind and its power of imagining are removed, as soon as the mind ceases to affirm the present existence of the body. Now the cause, why the mind ceases to affirm this existence of the body, cannot be the mind itself (III. iv.), nor again the fact that the body ceases to exist. For (by II. vi.) the cause, why the mind affirms the existence of the body, is not that the body began to exist; therefore, for the same reason, it does not cease to affirm the existence of the body, because the body ceases to exist; but (II. xvii.) this result follows from another idea, which excludes the present existence of our body and, consequently, of our mind, and which is therefore contrary to the idea constituting the essence of our mind.

4, prop 38 - Whatsoever disposes the human body, so as to render it capable of being affected in an increased number of ways, or of affecting external bodies in an increased number of ways, is useful to man; and is so, in proportion as the body is thereby rendered more capable of being affected or affecting other bodies in an increased number of ways; contrariwise, whatsoever renders the body less capable in this respect is hurtful to man.

utilisé(e) par : 4, prop 43, demo   |  4, prop 45, cor 2, sc  |  4, prop 47, demo   |  4, prop 50, demo   |  4, prop 59, demo 

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