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propositio 65

Pars 4, prop 65
Latin | Appuhn - fr | Stern - de | Peri - it | Suchtelen - nl | Peña - es | Pautrat - fr | Misrahi - fr     infra (2)  |  haut ^

Under the guidance of reason we should pursue the greater of two goods and the lesser of two evils.

De duobus bonis majus et de duobus malis minus ex rationis ductu sequemur.

De duobus bonis majus et de duobus malis minus ex rationis ductu sequemur.

De deux biens nous rechercherons sous la conduite de la Raison le plus grand, et de deux maux le moindre. (Appuhn - fr)

Unter der Leitung der Vernunft werden wir von zwei Gütern das größere und von zwei Übeln das kleinere wählen. (Stern - de)

Quando siamo guidati dalla Ragione noi ci rivolgiamo al maggiore fra due beni e ci adattiamo al minore fra due mali. (Peri - it)

Wanneer wij geleid worden door de Rede, zullen wij van twee goede zaken de beste en van twee slechte de minst slechte kiezen. (Suchtelen - nl)

Según la guía de la razón, entre dos bienes escogeremos el mayor, y entre dos males, el menor. (Peña - es)

Sous la conduite de la raison, nous recherchons de deux biens le plus grand, et de deux maux le moindre. (Pautrat - fr)

Sous la conduite de la Raison nous rechercherons de deux biens le plus grand, et de deux maux le moindre. (Misrahi - fr)

demonstratio par 4, pref  |  4, prop 63, cor 

Latin | Appuhn - fr | Stern - de | Peri - it | Suchtelen - nl | Peña - es | Misrahi - fr

4, prop 65, demo  - A good which prevents our enjoyment of a greater good is in reality an evil; for we apply the terms good and bad to things, in so far as we compare them one with another (see preface to this Part); therefore, evil is in reality a lesser good; hence under the guidance of reason we seek or pursue only the greater good and the lesser evil. Q.E.D.

4, prop 65, demo  - Bonum quod impedit quominus majore bono fruamur, est revera malum; malum enim et bonum (ut in praefatione hujus ostendimus) de rebus dicitur quatenus easdem ad invicem comparamus et (per eandem rationem) malum minus revera bonum est; quare (per corollarium propositionis 63 hujus) ex rationis ductu bonum tantum majus et malum minus appetemus seu sequemur. Q.E.D.

4, prop 65, demo  - Un bien qui empêche que nous ne jouissions d'un bien plus grand, est en réalité un mal ; car mauvais et bon (comme nous l'avons montré dans la Préface de celle Partie) se disent des choses en tant que nous les comparons entre elles ; et un mal moindre est en réalité un bien (pour la même raison) ; c'est pourquoi (Coroll. de la Prop. 63) sous la conduite de la Raison nous appéterons ou rechercherons seulement un bien plus grand et un mal moindre. C.Q.F.D. (Appuhn - fr)

4, prop 65, demo  - Ein Gut, welches uns hindert, ein größeres Gut zu genießen, ist in Wahrheit ein Übel. Denn schlecht und gut heißen die Dinge (wie im Vorwort dieses Teils gezeigt wurde), sofern wir sie miteinander vergleichen, und das kleinere Übel ist (aus demselben Grunde) inWahrheit ein Gut. Daher werden wir (nach Zusatz zum vorigen Lehrsatz) unter der Leitung der Vernunft nur das größere Gut und das kleinere Übel verlangen oder wählen. -W.z.b.w. (Stern - de)

4, prop 65, demo  - Un bene che ci impedisca di fruire di un bene maggiore è in realtà un male: le cose, infatti, sono qualificate buone o cattive come abbiamo detto nella Prefazione di questa Parte in quanto noi le confrontiamo fra di esse. Per la stessa ragione un male minore d'un altro è in realtà un bene. Ragion per cui, quando siamo guidati dalla Ragione, noi appetiremo, ossia perseguiremo, un bene solo se maggiore d'un altro, e un male solo se minore d'un altro. (Conseg. d. Prop. 63 qui sopra). (Peri - it)

4, prop 65, demo  - Het goed, dat ons belet van een grooter goed te genieten, is eigenlijk een kwaad; goed en kwaad immers noemen wij de dingen (gelijk wij in de Voorrede van dit Deel hebben betoogd), voorzoover wij ze met elkaar vergelijken. Een geringer kwaad daarentegen is (om dezelfde reden) eigenlijk goed, zoodat wij (vlg. Gevolg voorgaande St.), wanneer wij geleid worden door de Rede, alleen een grooter goed en een kleiner kwaad zullen begeeren of kiezen. H.t.b.w. (Suchtelen - nl)

4, prop 65, demo  - Un bien que impide que disfrutemos de otro bien mayor es, en realidad, un mal; en efecto, mal y bien se predican de las cosas (como hemos mostrado en el Prefacio de esta Parte) en cuanto que las comparamos entre sí, y (por la misma razón) un mal menor es, en realidad, un bien; por ello (por el Corolario de la Proposición 63 de esta Parte), según la guía de la razón, apeteceremos o seguiremos sólo el bien mayor y el mal menor. Q.E.D. (Peña - es)

4, prop 65, demo  - Un bien qui est un obstacle à la jouissance d’un bien plus grand est en réalité un mal ; le bien et le mal, en effet (comme nous l’avons montré dans la Préface), se disent des choses en tant que nous les comparons entre elles ; et (pour la même raison) un mal moindre peut être un bien ; c’est pourquoi (par le Corollaire de la Proposition 63) sous la conduite de la Raison nous ne poursuivrons ou ne rechercherons de deux biens que le plus grand, et de deux maux que le plus petit. C.Q.F.D. (Misrahi - fr)

4, pref - Human infirmity in moderating and checking the emotions I name bondage: for, when a man is a prey to his emotions, he is not his own master, but lies at the mercy of fortune: so much so, that he is often compelled, while seeing that which is better for him, to follow that which is worse. Why this is so, and what is good or evil in the emotions, I propose to show in this part of my treatise. But, before I begin, it would be well to make a few prefatory observations on perfection and imperfection, good and evil.
When a man has purposed to make a given thing, and has brought it to perfection, his work will be pronounced perfect, not only by himself, but by everyone who rightly knows, or thinks that he knows, the intention and aim of its author. For instance, suppose anyone sees a work (which I assume to be not yet completed), and knows that the aim of the author of that work is to build a house, he will call the work imperfect; he will, on the other hand, call it perfect, as soon as he sees that it is carried through to the end, which its author had purposed for it. But if a man sees a work, the like whereof he has never seen before, and if he knows not the intention of the artificer, he plainly cannot know, whether that work be perfect or imperfect. Such seems to be the primary meaning of these terms.
But, after men began to form general ideas, to think out types of houses, buildings, towers, &c., and to prefer certain types to others, it came about, that each man called perfect that which he saw agree with the general idea he had formed of the thing in question, and called imperfect that which he saw agree less with his own preconceived type, even though it had evidently been completed in accordance with the idea of its artificer. This seems to be the only reason for calling natural phenomena, which, indeed, are not made with human hands, perfect or imperfect: for men are wont to form general ideas of things natural, no less than of things artificial, and such ideas they hold as types, believing that Nature (who they think does nothing without an object) has them in view, and has set them as types before herself. Therefore, when they behold something in Nature, which does not wholly conform to the preconceived type which they have formed of the thing in question, they say that Nature has fallen short or has blundered, and has left her work incomplete. Thus we see that men are wont to style natural phenomena perfect or imperfect rather from their own prejudices, than from true knowledge of what they pronounce upon.
Now we showed in the Appendix to Part I., that Nature does not work with an end in view. For the eternal and infinite Being, which we call God or Nature, acts by the same necessity as that whereby it exists. For we have shown, that by the same necessity of its nature, whereby it exists, it likewise works (I. xvi.). The reason or cause why God or Nature exists, and the reason why he acts, are one and the same. Therefore, as he does not exist for the sake of an end, so neither does he act for the sake of an end; of his existence and of his action there is neither origin nor end. Wherefore, a cause which is called final is nothing else but human desire, in so far as it is considered as the origin or cause of anything. For example, when we say that to be inhabited is the final cause of this or that house, we mean nothing more than that a man, conceiving the conveniences of household life, had a desire to build a house. Wherefore, the being inhabited, in so far as it is regarded as a final cause, is nothing else but this particular desire, which is really the efficient cause; it is regarded as the primary cause, because men are generally ignorant of the causes of their desires. They are, as I have often said already, conscious of their own actions and appetites, but ignorant of the causes whereby they are determined to any particular desire. Therefore, the common saying that Nature sometimes falls short, or blunders, and produces things which are imperfect, I set down among the glosses treated of in the Appendix to Part I. Perfection and imperfection, then, are in reality merely modes of thinking, or notions which we form from a comparison among one another of individuals of the same species; hence I said above (II. Def. vi.), that by reality and perfection I mean the same thing. For we are wont to refer all the individual things in nature to one genus, which is called the highest genus, namely, to the category of Being, whereto absolutely all individuals in nature belong. Thus, in so far as we refer the individuals in nature to this category, and comparing them one with another, find that some possess more of being or reality than others, we, to this extent, say, that some are more perfect than others. Again, in so far as we attribute to them anything implying negation--as term, end, infirmity, etc.,--we, to this extent, call them imperfect, because they do not affect our mind so much as the things which we call perfect, not because they have any intrinsic deficiency, or because Nature has blundered. For nothing lies within the scope of a thing's nature, save that which follows from the necessity of the nature of its efficient cause, and whatsoever follows from the necessity of the nature of its efficient cause necessarily comes to pass.
As for the terms good and bad, they indicate no positive quality in things regarded in themselves, but are merely modes of thinking, or notions which we form from the comparison of things one with another. Thus one and the same thing can be at the same time good, bad, and indifferent. For instance, music is good for him that is melancholy, bad for him that mourns; for him that is deaf, it is neither good nor bad.
Nevertheless, though this be so, the terms should still be retained. For, inasmuch as we desire to form an idea of man as a type of human nature which we may hold in view, it will be useful for us to retain the terms in question, in the sense I have indicated.
In what follows, then, I shall mean by "good" that, which we certainly know to be a means of approaching more nearly to the type of human nature, which we have set before ourselves; by "bad," that which we certainly know to be a hindrance to us in approaching the said type. Again, we shall say that men are more perfect, or more imperfect, in proportion as they approach more or less nearly to the said type. For it must be specially remarked that, when I say that a man passes from a lesser to a greater perfection, or vice versâ, I do not mean that he is changed from one essence or reality to another; for instance, a horse would be as completely destroyed by being changed into a man, as by being changed into an insect. What I mean is, that we conceive the thing's power of action, in so far as this is understood by its nature, to be increased or diminished. Lastly, by perfection in general I shall, as I have said, mean reality--in other words, each thing's essence, in so far as it exists, and operates in a particular manner, and without paying any regard to its duration. For no given thing can be said to be more perfect, because it has passed a longer time in existence. The duration of things cannot be determined by their essence, for the essence of things involves no fixed and definite period of existence; but everything, whether it be more perfect or less perfect, will always be able to persist in existence with the same force wherewith it began to exist; wherefore, in this respect, all things are equal.

4, prop 63, cor  - Under desire which springs from reason, we seek good directly, and shun evil indirectly.

corollarium par 4, prop 63, cor 

Latin | Appuhn - fr | Stern - de | Peri - it | Suchtelen - nl | Peña - es | Misrahi - fr     infra (1)

4, prop 65, cor  - We may, under the guidance of reason, pursue the lesser evil as though it were the greater good, and we may shun the lesser good, which would be the cause of the greater evil. For the evil, which is here called the lesser, is really good, and the lesser good is really evil, wherefore we may seek the former and shun the latter.

4, prop 65, cor  - Malum minus pro majore bono ex rationis ductu sequemur et bonum minus quod causa est majoris mali, negligemus. Nam malum quod hic dicitur minus, revera bonum est et bonum contra malum; quare (per corollarium propositionis 63 hujus) illud appetemus et hoc negligemus. Q.E.D.

4, prop 65, cor  - Nous rechercherons sous la conduite de la Raison un mal moindre pour un plus grand bien et renoncerons à un bien moindre qui est cause d'un mal plus grand, car le mal appelé ici moindre, est en réalité un bien, et le bien inversement un mal ; nous appéterons donc le mal (Coroll. de la Prop. 63) et renoncerons au bien. C.Q.F.D. (Appuhn - fr)

4, prop 65, cor  - Unter der Leitung der Vernunft werden wir ein kleineres Übel um eines größeren Gutes willen wählen und auf ein kleineres Gut, das die Ursache eines größeren Übels ist, verzichten. Denn das Übel, das in diesem Fall ein kleineres heißt, ist eigentlich ein Gut und das Gut umgekehrt ein Übel. Daher (nach Zusatz zu Lehrsatz 63 dieses Teils) werden wir jenes verlangen und auf dieses verzichten. -W.z.b.w. (Stern - de)

4, prop 65, cor  - Guidati dalla Ragione noi sceglieremo un male minore in vista d'un bene maggiore, e trascureremo un bene minore che è causa d'un male maggiore. Infatti il male, che qui diciamo minore, è in realtà un bene, e, viceversa, il bene minore è un male: ragion per cui noi perseguiremo quel male e trascureremo questo bene. (Conseg. d. Prop. 63 c.s.). (Peri - it)

4, prop 65, cor  - Wanneer wij geleid worden door de Rede zullen wij terwille van een grooter goed een geringer kwaad verkiezen en een geringer goed, dat oorzaak is van een grooter kwaad, verwaarloozen. Immers het kwaad dat hier "geringer" genoemd wordt, is eigenlijk een goed, het goed daarentegen een kwaad. Zoodat (vlg. Gevolg St. LXIII v.d. D.) wij het eerste zullen begeeren en het tweede opofferen. H.t.b.w. (Suchtelen - nl)

4, prop 65, cor  - Según la guía de la razón, seguiremos un mal menor que nos reporte un bien mayor, y renunciaremos a un bien menor que sea causa de un mal mayor. Pues el mal que aquí se llama menor es, en realidad, un bien, y el bien, por el contrario, es un mal; según eso (por el Corolario de la Proposición 63 de esta Parte) apeteceremos aquel mal y renunciaremos a este bien. Q.E.D. (Peña - es)

4, prop 65, cor  - Sous la conduite de la Raison nous poursuivrons un mal moindre pour un bien plus grand et nous négligerons un bien moindre qui serait la cause d’un mal plus grand. Car le mal qu’on dit ici moindre est en réalité un bien et le bien est au contraire un mal ; c’est pourquoi (par le Corollaire de la Proposition 63) nous poursuivrons le mal et négligerons le bien. C.Q.F.D. (Misrahi - fr)

utilisé(e) par : 4, prop 66, cor 

4, prop 63, cor  - Under desire which springs from reason, we seek good directly, and shun evil indirectly.

utilisé(e) par : 4, prop 66, demo   |  4, prop 66, cor 

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